مراقبة البضائع إلكترونياً بفضل تكنولوجيا متطورة
تتابع السيدة أماني الماحي، رئيسة قطاع الفروع الخارجية في شركة مصر للتأمين، الكتابة عن صناعة التأمين البحري، نظراً لأهمية هذا الموضوع الذي يُعتبر ركيزة من ركائز نهضة الدول. وفي هذه الحلقة الرابعة من سلسلة مقالات أعدتها السيدة الماحي عن التأمين وإعادة التأمين في صناعة التأمين البحري، تطرقت إلى دور التكنولوجيا في تعزيز هذه الصناعة وتطويرها ومواكبة ما يجري في بلدان متقدمة على هذا الصعيد. ذلك أن التكنولوجيا تسّرع العمل، تقّرب المسافات، تواكب عمليات التأمين البحري وشحن البضائع. وما إلى ذلك، بمجرد متابعة كل هذه العمليات عبر شاشة صغيرة أمام من يتولّى الإشراف على هذه المهمة.
لكن التكنولوجيا سيف ذو حدّين. صحيح أنها تقوم بكل هذه الإنجازات التقنية المطلوبة، وصحيح أنها تلعب دوراً في القدرة على تعقّب البضائع إلكترونياً ومراقبة الحرارة خلال عبور البضائع من بلد إلى آخر. إلا أنها قد تتسبب بأخطار كبيرة ناتجة عن الفيروسات، كما عن القرصنة الآخذة في التوسّع والإنتشار، وهو ما دفع شركات التأمين إلى إدراج برنامج لتغطية هذه القرصنة التي قد تطيح كل الإنجازات التي تّوفرها التكنولوجيا الحديثة.
في هذا المقال تعرض السيدة أماني الماحي للقراء هذا الواقع وتشرح دور التكنولوجيا والدور المضاد للفيروسات وعمليات القرصنة بشكل عام لتؤّكد في النهاية أن البرنامج التأميني الجديد الذي اعتمدته كلّ الشركات لمواجهة القرصنة، بات واحداً من البرامج المهمة التي باتت معتمدة عند شركات التأمين المباشر الكبيرة وبالطبع عند شركات الإعادة.
فإلى المقالة التي وضعت لها السيدة ماحي عنوان”المؤثرات الإيجابية والسلبية على سوق التأمين البحري”.
Trends affecting Marine Insurance market
There are very real challenges in the Marine sector.
We are seeing a significant number of insurers pulling out of hull or cargo Insurance or marine underwriting altogether. It has been estimated that the 25% of the Lloyd’s cargo Insurance capacity has left the market recently.
It is also an inevitable outcome of too much capacity chasing to little business. Supply and demand is the key driver here and quite simply it has been present in the market for some years. It has now forced premiums down to levels that are not sustainable. This means that even a modest upswing in claim will leave many portfolios very exposed.
We should note that there is not an issue of capacity in the market and clients will still be able to find cover. The problem we are facing is one of an underwriting performance.
Alongside capacity and performance issues, there are two other longterm challenges to be highlighted:
• The first is people and expertise: More automation means fewer people. Coupled with this, the stream of mergers and acquisitions has reduced the pool of expertise and fewer people being dedicated to Marine underwriting. Expertise and experience are being lost.
• The second challenge, which might also be an opportunity, is technology: Technology change the way marine Insurance is transacted and how money is moved around the system, how products are put together and how business is placed in the market.
● Inevitably this may lead to a reduction in people but it might also increase efficiency.
As an industry, we must embrace technology and welcome change if we want to prosper in the future.
What are the next frontiers for shipping risks? What should we expect to handle within the next years ahead?
Technology is going to play a bigger role in the way cargo is moved around the world.
Unmanned ships and autonomous vessels are already becoming more of a reality. We must be ready to provide adequate risk mitigation in what will inevitably be a much more automated world.
How technology and digitalization may affect maritime losses?
Technology and digitalization can be viewed as a risk and an opportunity. A large proportion of claims handled by the marine insurance sector occur due to human error. Technology will produce new currently unqualified risks, such those arising from unmanned ships.
There is an interesting conundrum here: technology
It might reduce the risk of shipping incidents by eliminating crew risk, but it might also introduce additional risks caused by computer malfunctions or cyber attack.
Technology will also play a role in loss prevention and mitigation.
For example, the ability to easily track goods online, control and monitor the temperature of those goods in transit. This new data will impact the Insurance cover, type of product and level of protection that is purchased.
Data and digitalization
This issue will become even more important and on of the top of the priorities. In the long-term, as we see fundamental change to the way we conduct our marine business in terms of risk evaluation, claims handling and other underwriting processes.. ● Build on the work already done and have created a big data and digitalization● Working with the software houses and experts across the industry to make challenges and opportunities for Marine Insurance.
Cyber Risk and Marine Insurance: Mind the Gap
What’s the potential impact of increasing cyber-activity on the marine Insurance claim environment? Although we have not seen claims specifically tied to cyber incidents, it is likely that cyber will become an increasing feature of marine physical damage claims in the future.
Cyber risk is a concern for shipping, as more and more technological solutions are introduced.
Recent cyber incidents like the one with Maersk in 2017, have made the industry realize that cyber-security measures and continuity planning are vital.
As more shipping systems require connectivity with the shore, more vessels will become vulnerable to hacking and hence for grounding or collision.
●●2021 is not far away, but the potential for cyber-risks to result in loss or liabilities is clearly already upon us●●
• Potentially owners may be exposed to gaps in cover arising from cyber incidents, an unsatisfactory situation in today’s connected world. For example, an owner’s Hull & Machinery Insurance may contain a cyber risk exclusion which mirrors, or derived from Institute clause 380.
There is also cyber risk exclusion in war risk policies that is related to computer viruses. The war risks clauses are derived from market Insurance policies and specifically exclude losses or liabilities arising as a result of cyber risks.
Why is cyber excluded?
Cyber risks present a range of issues for insurers and there are relatively new claims data relating to this risk but limited. Another difficulty is that cyber security is not yet well-established in the maritime industry.
The sheer complexity of the information technology, operational technology and internet available across the industry also presents a challenge, as does the potential for cyber problems to spread quickly across globe. As a result the likelihood, extent and costs associated with claims involving cyber risks are difficult to calculate and potentially significant hence the reluctance to offer cover.
P & I cover for Cyber Risks
The international group of P&I clubs “pool able “cover does not exclude claims arising from cyber risks. This mean that club members benefit from the same level of P&I cover, should a claim arise due to cyber risk, as they would from such a claim arising from a traditional risk. As always cover is subject to the club rules.
If a claim with cyber element arises, an owner may need to demonstrate that they took all obvious steps to prevent foreseeable loss or liability. As more and more potential cyber risks are being identified, clubs will expect to see the operation of sensible and property managed cyber risks policies and systems both ashore and on vessels.
● Cyber risks can affect almost every part of a shipping company. There will be lots to do to identify risks and vulnerability and to take steps to prepare for and respond to cyber threats.
It is time for us all to act.